Every state has its own strengths and weaknesses. In theory, each state considers these when designing its national and foreign policy, free from external influence and thus manifesting its independence or sovereignty. Nevertheless, each state is also a member of the international community, so in terms of policy-making it has to consider current world development trends, one of which is globalization. Globalization is accompanied by state interdependence, which unavoidably leads to the erosion of sovereignty. This is particularly evident in large interstate entities such as the European Union. This article presents research into the current challenges and consequences of globalization, transformation and the meaning of political independence / state sovereignty today, and current approaches to safeguarding state sovereignty in the EU.