The Warsaw Summit was held on 8-9 July 2016 with the assumption of “an essential Alliance in a more dangerous world” both in the eastern and in the southern flanks. Bearing in mind that the allies gathered in “a defining moment for the security of our nations and populations”, this contribution aims to analyse the main decisions of the Warsaw summit towards a ‘new’ NATO 360? full spectrum approach based on agility, flexibility and readiness. Moreover, as collective defence, crisis management and cooperative security remain the key core areas of NATO, this paper will also explore some critical insights to address eastern flank challenges from the southern perspective. We will conclude that an enhanced cooperation and full engagement between NATO and the EU as agreed in the final communiqu? are crucial for security and defence of all borders.

Ana Isabel Xavier has a PhD in International Relations (Coimbra, 2011). Since 2013, she has acted as an invited Assistant Professor in the Political Science Department at NOVA University of Lisbon (Portugal). Research Fellow in IPRI – Portuguese Institute of International Relations, her main publications are on European security and defence, military studies and International Organisations. She was a German Marshall Fund fellow in 2015/2016 and a fellow of the 2013 SUSI Institute on US National Security Policymaking

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