THE KREMLIN’S INFORMATION WARS IN THE 21st CENTURY: ESTONIA, GEORGIA, UKRAINE

The article deals with the use of information warfare during the so-called “Bronze Night” events in Estonia in 2007, the Russian-Georgian war in 2008, and the Russian aggression against Ukraine since 2014. The events in Estonia are described as the first large-scale usage of cyber warfare combined with disinformation against a sovereign state. The war against Georgia is presented as the very first usage of military actions together with cyber-attacks and disinformation. And the ongoing Russian aggression against Ukraine is described as an example of combining of the most effective information warfare tactics applied in Estonia and Georgia together with new information warfare tools. All three examples are presented as the cornerstones for understanding the main peculiarities of the Kremlin’s modern information warfare.

The article deals with the use of information warfare during the so-called “Bronze Night” events in Estonia in 2007, the Russian-Georgian war in 2008, and the Russian aggression against Ukraine since 2014. The events in Estonia are described as the first large-scale usage of cyber warfare combined with disinformation against a sovereign state. The war against Georgia is presented as the very first usage of military actions together with cyber-attacks and disinformation. And the ongoing Russian aggression against Ukraine is described as an example of combining of the most effective information warfare tactics applied in Estonia and Georgia together with new information warfare tools. All three examples are presented as the cornerstones for understanding the main peculiarities of the Kremlin’s modern information warfare.
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Maksym Kyiak

Maksym Kyiak is a Doctor of Philosophy, the Deputy Director in the Central European Institute, and a co-founder of “Global Ukrainians”, a worldwide network of public diplomats. He worked at various academic and governmental institutions in Ukraine and abroad. He has represented Ukraine at the CAHROM Committee in the Council of Europe and was one of the co-authors of the research of the NATO StratCom COE on the role of humor in strategic communications, “StratCom Laughs: In Search of an Analytical Framework”. Maksym is also working on his postdoctoral research on information society and its influence on religious processes. Research interests: disinformation, information warfare, public policy, foreign policy, sociology of religion, ethnic policy


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